Eight months back I was a stranger to security & specifically PenTesting. Felt awesome today passing the eCPPTv2 exam, after finishing certifications like eCXD, eCRE & eJPT previously. In all honesty, being new to PenTesting this course was not an easy one for me, but I learned a lot. I got a lot of support from eLearnSecurity forums & also their unofficial discord channel.

I will have a detailed write-up on my journey here soon. Till then ciao!

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Terraform is the infrastructure as a Code (IaaS) offering from HashiCorp. It is a tool for building, changing, and managing infrastructure in a safe, repeatable way.

It is based on similar IaC philosophy as Aws’s CloudFormation. Operators and Infrastructure teams can use Terraform to manage environments with a configuration language called the HashiCorp Configuration Language (HCL) for human-readable, automated deployments.

The Terraform Associate certification is either for those cloud engineers that specialize in operations/IT, or for those developers who know or would like to know the basic concepts, and skills associated with open source HashiCorp Terraform.

I have used infrastructure tools with APIs and scripting from VMware, Citrix etc. Terraform takes it a notch above and makes it extremely easy to have your scripts work across different cloud vendors like Azure, AWS, GCS etc. I’m extremely impressed by the ease of use for this product. The ecosystem is growing exponentially and has an active community contributing to Terraform. …

Intro to K8s services with examples

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In this post, we will look at the K8s(Kubernetes) services. This blog post covers the following:

- What are services & examples
- Types of services
- Look into each service type with practical examples

In Kubernetes, a Service is an abstraction which defines a logical set of Pods and a policy by which to access them (sometimes this pattern is called a micro-service).

Cool yay! we now know the definition, but why do we need a service?

Why can’t users just talk directly with the pods that host the applications? …

In this post, we will look at

  • What Kubernetes(K8s) Labels and Selectors are
  • Why do we need them
  • How to use them

Let’s try to understand the concept with an analogy. If you ever have looked at different types of homes, one can see townhomes, condos, Single Family Homes, apartments, etc.

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Apartment vs Condo vs Single Family Home vs Townhomes

Let’s say we would like to categorize these homes by

- Size(sqft area)- Type(condo, apartment, sfh, townhome)- Number of people(2,4,6,8+)

These are nothing but Labels. Selectors help filter out things like gives all homes which are of type SFH and greater than 500sqft in size. …

Continuing from our Part1 of the series, let’s now take a look at Persistent Volumes

Persistent Volume type1: Cloud Volumes

With this type of volume, we are instructing through a YAML file to connect to one of the cloud providers(EBS/persistent disk/SSD, etc. with Google/Amazon/Azure, etc.) for volumes.

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Wait a minute, since we are directly connecting with the volume on the cloud(no layer which is helping us manage the volume), don't we need to have the backend knowledge. Yes, we certainly need to have backend knowledge to manage these volumes.

Let’s try creating a volume using GKE, using the documentation from here

Started with creating a GKE cluster of 3…

quick intro to docker containers

This is a simple series of tutorial on Docker.


Learn Docker concepts quickly without getting lost in minute details. Provide tools one would need to create and run your first containerized application using Docker, enabling one to be able to look for more by yourself when needed.


Nothing as such. One can install Docker from here

Basic Concepts

A container is what we eventually want to run and host with the Docker engine.

From a conceptual point of view, a container runs inside the Docker host isolated from the other containers and even the host OS. …

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Kubernetes (K8s) was originally developed as a platform for stateless applications with the idea that persistent data will be stored separately. As the project matured, many organizations wanted to also leverage K8s for their stateful applications and so persistent volume management was added.

In this blog post, we will try to understand Persistent Volumes and Claims with examples. The flow we will try to go with is

- Understand the basics of volumes & how to use the same- Ephermeral volumes- Persistent Volumes- How to use the same practically

Why do we need Volumes?

Pods are ephemeral, they come and go frequently. What if you have data that you must keep even if the POD goes down? This requirement means that we need to make the POD and its associated data loosely coupled — essentially this would allow data to exist independent of any POD. This data is called a Kubernetes Volume and it helps persist state across multiple PODs. A persistent volume is like an external hard drive, you can plug it in and save you data on it. …

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In this post, we will bring up a Postgres database instance in Kubernetes and then connect to this instance using a cronjob. The goal is to learn the basics of Kubernetes using this exercise. For learning K8s basics, I highly recommend this course for beginners.


  • To get started, first setup a minikube Kubernetes cluster using instructions from here (we could use anything else like GKE, EKS, K3, etc.). minikube lets you run Kubernetes locally. minikube runs a single-node Kubernetes cluster on your personal computer.
  • Install helm to manage Kubernetes applications. …


Recently I have been spending some time reversing binaries as part of my ongoing coursework and CTFs.

Analyzing binaries in debuggers is by itself a challenging and complex feat given the nature of assembly code and the way this code is written (unlike high-level languages like Python). This problem becomes even more compounded due to the lack of user-friendly disassembling tools. This is where tools like radare2 shine.

There are plenty of other reverse engineering tools include IDA , Hopper, BinaryNinja etc. However, Radare2 is one of my frequently used tools. Reversing binaries involves understanding not just the assembly code patterns, but also understanding metadata related to the binary. …

My journey towards the GNU Debugger Expert certification exam!

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One can find details on what gdb debugger is here. It is pretty popular and is a foundational element for a lot of technologies like reverse-engineering, exploit-development, etc. Keeping that in mind started exploring productive and efficient ways to learn gdb. In this post will try to share my experience and review the course I took for the same.

The Search

The documentation for gdb is pretty vast and exhaustive, however, it is not very easy to quickly go over. Hence was looking for a good way to learn gdb. …


Sandeep Baldawa

whoami >> Slack, Prev — Springpath (Acquired by Cisco), VMware, Test Automation, Devops and Cybersecurity Enthusiast

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